Flourish Excelª is a simple source of readily available organic carbon. All plants require a source of carbon. This is typically obtained from CO2, but, may also be obtained via relatively simple organic compounds (such as photosynthetic intermediates). Since both processes occur simultaneously one can derive a substantial benefit with the use of Flourish Excelª either alone or in conjunction with CO2 injection. Flourish Excelª also has iron reducing properties which promote the ferrous state of iron (Fe+2), which is more easily utilized by plants than ferric iron (Fe+3). Flourish Excelª is an integral component of Seachem's plant products and is recommended for use with the entire Flourishª line as well as our Flouriteª and Onyxª gravels. Contains no phosphate or nitrate.